June 28, 2022

Most crops are made up of the identical primary elements, that are the basis, stem, and leaves, and every of those elements of the plant performs a selected operate that ensures the survival of the plant, and performs all of the life processes that guarantee this.

Beneath we’ll study the primary elements that make up most crops:


The primary operate of the basis is to soak up water and salts from the soil. This absorption course of gives the required reserves for the plant physique. In some species, the roots have a further job that features storing some vitamins and synthesizing some supplies wanted by crops. development. Appropriate for plant elements.

In most dicotyledons, roots kind instantly from the cotyledon elongation, and this ends in a foremost (main) root pointing down into the soil. As well as, many secondary roots depart from the primary root. These secondary branches and first roots kind a definite root system, just like the rootstock of a mustard plant.

However in monocots, the primary (main) root is often short-lived and weathers into the soil because it grows quickly, so it’s all the time changed by different roots. The origin of the roots in the sort of plant is from the bottom of the stem, as seen on the basis of the wheat plant.

In some plant species, roots can kind from elements aside from the basis.

The tip of the basis is often coated with a particular thimble-like construction referred to as a cap or root cap, which serves to guard the basis from put on and tear that may outcome from contact with and penetration of the soil throughout development. .

In some plant species, the roots have a excessive dietary worth, and other people profit from consuming these roots as a result of vitamins they include, resembling carrot and turnip roots.

There are different varieties of roots, however they’re much less frequent, for instance, some climbing crops have particular roots that stick out of them to help them and assist them take root.

In some plant species that stay in swamps, most of the roots can develop upward and out above the floor of the water. This kind is known as aerial roots, and we all know from its title that its foremost operate is to soak up oxygen gasoline for respiration.


The stem is the area of the plant that bears the leaves and connects the basis and leaves, and the operate of the stem is to help the plant, present water and minerals to the leaves, and transport vitamins to the leaves. root.

The a part of the stem from which the leaves depart is known as nodes, and the remaining elements are referred to as internodes.

In some crops, the stem has different capabilities, resembling nutrient storage, plant safety, or vegetative propagation.

Some varieties of market in crops mutate and tackle totally different sizes and styles, as within the case of the stem of a potato, ginger and turmeric, the place vitamins are saved.

Specifically formed leaves generally known as tendrils could seem available on the market, that are formed like skinny filaments and twisted right into a spiral, they contribute to the steadiness of crops and assist them climb partitions or different crops. There are tendrils for crops resembling melons, pumpkins, cucumbers and grapes.

Among the axillary buds of the plant’s stem could become straight, pointed spikes. Examples of such particular formations are citrus fruits. These spines play a job in defending the plant from animals.

In some plant species residing in dry areas, the stem turns into flat or cylindrical, wealthy in chlorophyll (chlorophyll), which is a vital part of photosynthesis.

Some crops, resembling strawberries, have stems generally known as floor stems, identified by that title as a result of they develop horizontally on the floor of the bottom, and typically elements of the stems come into contact with the soil and develop roots that penetrate the soil. and inexperienced leaves after which separated from the unique plant to make a brand new plant.


The leaves of a plant are one among its most vital elements as a result of they’re answerable for the manufacturing of meals by photosynthesis. Leaves come up from stem nodes that carry buds.

The leaf comprises many veins and veins. Often, the primary vein runs alongside the center of the leaf, and the branching veins are distributed in numerous shapes and preparations, these veins are answerable for making certain the steadiness of the leaf and kind channels for transporting water, mineral salts and vitamins.

When the veins usually are not evenly spaced, it’s referred to as reticular distribution, and if the veins are distributed in parallel, it’s referred to as parallel.

On the whole, the veins within the leaves of most dicotyledons have a reticular construction, whereas in monocots their association is parallel.

Sheet modifications (sheet modifications)

Leaves are sometimes modified to carry out capabilities aside from photosynthesis. For instance, the leaves flip into tendrils to assist the plant climb numerous surfaces, like a pea, and might flip into spikes to stop animals from approaching them, like a cactus. Whereas garlic and onion leaves mutate and thicken to retailer vitamins.

The leaves of some crops have been modified to behave as predators, as these leaves open and launch a scent that pulls bugs.


Most plant species take in water and minerals dissolved in water by their roots from the soil. Nevertheless, a plant doesn’t should devour all of the water it absorbs, so extra water may be disposed of by excreting it by holes within the leaf floor, a course of generally known as transpiration.

Transpiration performs an vital function in moisturizing and cooling crops at excessive temperatures, which contributes to the stabilization of the inner construction of all elements of the plant.

Do all plant elements respire?

In most plant species, every half absorbs oxygen and releases carbon dioxide independently. Even the roots perform the method of respiration. To know this, think about what is going to occur if all elements of the plant are immersed below water, during which case the plant will certainly be poisoned.

Vegetation perform photosynthesis solely through the day, and respiration through the day and night time.

Do you know?

Oxygen is without doubt one of the most vital components wanted for our survival, however many organisms don’t want it, and for some organisms, oxygen may be poisonous. In reality, the white blood cells in our physique use oxygen to kill micro organism that enter the physique. And once you breathe in air, you breathe in a variety of different gases with it, since hydrogen gasoline alone makes up about 21% of the Earth’s environment, and in case you breathe solely oxygen, you possibly can undergo from well being issues. Even for people, it may be harmful to breathe pure oxygen for lengthy intervals of time.


Flowers are the reproductive organs of flowering crops and their function is to provide seeds that produce new crops after they germinate. Flowers include buildings generally known as stamens which signify male organs and different buildings generally known as pistils which signify feminine organs.

When stamens and pistils are current in the identical flower, the plant is unisexual (hermaphrodite). A plant can also be unisexual if the stamens are in flowers and the pistils are in different flowers of the identical plant. Whereas crops are bisexual, when the stamens in flowers and the pistils in different flowers of one other plant belong to the identical species.

flower elements

Stamens: In all mammals, the male reproductive organ consists of a skinny filament topped with a bulge referred to as an anther. Within the anther, the so-called pollen grains are fashioned, which symbolize male weddings.

Pistil: is the feminine reproductive organ and every pistil is made up of three elements: ovary, feather and stigma.

After pollination, a course of happens within the plant. Spores within the ovary flip into seeds. Because the ovary enlarges and grows, fruits are fashioned.

Different buildings: There are lots of different buildings in flowers they usually fluctuate by sort, a very powerful buildings are the flower stool which connects it to the plant, fixes it to it and protects it, and the corolla which consists of a number of coloured leaves exuding fragrant smells. The corolla is coloured and scented with a sigh that pulls bugs that assist switch pollen from the stamens to the chimes between the flowers.


Fruit formation is attribute of all flowering crops.

The fruits are a mature ovary that has elevated in dimension after pollination.

Some fruits may be fashioned with out pollination. And these fruits are seedless like banana fruits.

After the pollination course of, the spores flip into seeds. These seeds include the germ of the plant, which grows below the proper circumstances to provide rise to a brand new plant.

Transport of water and minerals in crops

Roots take in water and mineral salts from the soil by tiny hairs generally known as absorbent grooves. These filaments play a job in enormously rising the absorbent floor space, which helps to soak up as a lot water and mineral salts as attainable from the soil. .

Water and mineral salts are transported after suction by vessels or pipes designed for this function. Collectively, these vessels kind the so-called vascular tissue.

Vascular tissue varieties a community of a lot of vessels connecting the leaves and the basis. Thus, they’re answerable for transporting water and minerals from the roots to the leaves by the stem.

The vascular tissue for transporting water and vitamins in a plant is known as xylem. The xylem varieties a steady community of canals that join the roots to the leaves by the stem and branches, thus carrying water to your complete plant and leaving vitamins behind.

The answer of water and mineral salts, which is transported from the basis to the leaves by the vessels of the vascular tissue, is called “imperfect juice”.

All elements of the plant want meals. Due to this fact, crops have particular vessels for the transport of vitamins that the plant produces throughout photosynthesis, these vessels are generally known as phloem vessels.

Vitamins and different substances which are transported by the cortical vessels are generally known as “complete juice”.


There’s a enormous distinction between various kinds of flowering crops – this distinction cripples the form, dimension, age and feeding strategies, however all of them have in frequent the primary elements: root, stem and leaves.

Roots are available many sizes and styles, and they’re answerable for transporting water and mineral salts from the soil by skinny filaments generally known as absorbent filaments.

The roots of some crops are specifically formed, and their operate could also be to retailer vitamins or to breathe.

The stem performs an vital function within the plant, because it contributes to the help of the plant and makes its leaves capable of flip to mild to hold out the method of photosynthesis, and water and mineral salts are transported from the basis to the leaves alongside the stem and thru the vessels.

Some markets tackle particular varieties for different capabilities resembling meals storage, vegetative propagation or safety.

Leaves are buildings that come up from the stem and are inexperienced in coloration. Leaves fluctuate in dimension, form, and form of the veins or vessels that stretch into them. Like different elements of the plant, leaves can mutate to carry out different capabilities, resembling thorns for protection and to provide animals and appendages the power to climb totally different surfaces.

Flowers are reproductive organs that adjust in form, dimension, and coloration from one plant to a different.

Flowers are an vital taxonomic characteristic within the plant kingdom, the place crops are divided into flowering and non-flowering crops, and flowering crops are divided into two classes in keeping with the variety of cotyledons of their seeds, there are crops with monocot seeds and others with dicots.

Water leaves the leaves as vapor by a course of referred to as transpiration. Throughout this course of, crops launch a variety of water into the air. This explains the sensation of moisture within the air once we are within the forest.



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